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Apache Pulsar Reference Guide

This reference guide demonstrates how your Quarkus application can utilize Quarkus Messaging to interact with Apache Pulsar.

1. 简介

Apache Pulsar is an open-source, distributed messaging and streaming platform built for the cloud. It provides a multi-tenant, high-performance solution to server messaging with tiered storage capabilities.

Pulsar implements the publish-subscribe pattern:

  • Producers publish messages to topics.

  • Consumers create subscriptions to those topics to receive and process incoming messages, and send acknowledgments to the broker when processing is finished.

  • When a subscription is created, Pulsar retains all messages, even if the consumer is disconnected. The retained messages are discarded only when a consumer acknowledges that all these messages are processed successfully.

A Pulsar cluster consists of

  • One or more brokers, which are stateless components.

  • A metadata store for maintaining topic metadata, schema, coordination and cluster configuration.

  • A set of bookies used for persistent storage of messages.

2. Quarkus Extension for Apache Pulsar

Quarkus provides support for Apache Pulsar through SmallRye Reactive Messaging framework. Based on Eclipse MicroProfile Reactive Messaging specification 3.0, it proposes a flexible programming model bridging CDI and event-driven.

This guide provides an in-depth look on Apache Pulsar and SmallRye Reactive Messaging framework. For a quick start take a look at Getting Started to Quarkus Messaging with Apache Pulsar.

You can add the messaging-pulsar extensions to your project by running the following command in your project base directory:

CLI
quarkus extension add messaging-pulsar
Maven
./mvnw quarkus:add-extension -Dextensions='messaging-pulsar'
Gradle
./gradlew addExtension --extensions='messaging-pulsar'

这会将以下内容添加到你的构建文件中:

pom.xml
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.quarkus</groupId>
    <artifactId>quarkus-messaging-pulsar</artifactId>
</dependency>
build.gradle
implementation("io.quarkus:quarkus-messaging-pulsar")

The extension includes pulsar-clients-original version 3.0.0 as a transitive dependency and is compatible with Pulsar brokers version 2.10.x.

3. Configuring SmallRye Pulsar Connector

Because SmallRye Reactive Messaging framework supports different messaging backends like Apache Kafka, Apache Pulsar, AMQP, Apache Camel, JMS, MQTT, etc., it employs a generic vocabulary:

  • Applications send and receive messages. Message wraps a payload and can be extended with some metadata. This should not be confused with a Pulsar Message, which consists of value, key With the Pulsar connector, a Reactive Messaging message corresponds to a Pulsar message.

  • Messages transit on channels. Application components connect to channels to publish and consume messages. The Pulsar connector maps channels to Pulsar topics.

  • Channels are connected to message backends using connectors. Connectors are configured to map incoming messages to a specific channel (consumed by the application) and collect outgoing messages sent to a specific channel. Each connector is dedicated to a specific messaging technology. For example, the connector dealing with Pulsar is named smallrye-pulsar.

A minimal configuration for the Pulsar connector with an incoming channel looks like the following:

%prod.pulsar.client.serviceUrl=pulsar:6650 (1)
mp.messaging.incoming.prices.connector=smallrye-pulsar (2)
1 Configure the Pulsar broker service url for the production profile. You can configure it globally or per channel using mp.messaging.incoming.$channel.serviceUrl property. In dev mode and when running tests, Dev Services for Pulsar automatically starts a Pulsar broker.
2 Configure the connector to manage the prices channel. By default, the topic name is same as the channel name.

You can configure the topic attribute to override it.

%prod 前缀表示该属性只在应用程序运行在生产模式下时生效(而不是在开发或测试模式)。更多细节请参考 Profile documentation
连接器自动连接

If you have a single connector on your classpath, you can omit the connector attribute configuration. Quarkus automatically associates orphan channels to the (unique) connector found on the classpath. Orphan channels are outgoing channels without a downstream consumer or incoming channels without an upstream producer.

可以用以下方法禁用这种自动连接功能:

quarkus.messaging.auto-connector-attachment=false

For more configuration options see Configuring Pulsar clients.

4. Receiving messages from Pulsar

The Pulsar Connector connects to a Pulsar broker using a Pulsar client and creates consumers to receive messages from Pulsar brokers, and it maps each Pulsar Message into Reactive Messaging Message.

4.1. 例子

Let’s imagine you have a Pulsar broker running, and accessible using the pulsar:6650 address. Configure your application to receive Pulsar messages on the prices channel as follows:

mp.messaging.incoming.prices.serviceUrl=pulsar://pulsar:6650 (1)
mp.messaging.incoming.prices.subscriptionInitialPosition=Earliest (2)
  1. Configure the Pulsar broker service url.

  2. Make sure consumer subscription starts receiving messages from the Earliest position.

You don’t need to set the Pulsar topic, nor the consumer name. By default, the connector uses the channel name (prices). You can configure the topic and consumerName attributes to override them.

In Pulsar, consumers need to provide a subscriptionName for topic subscriptions. If not provided the connector generates a unique subscription name.

Then, your application can receive the double payload directly:

import org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Incoming;

import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;

@ApplicationScoped
public class PriceConsumer {

    @Incoming("prices")
    public void consume(double price) {
        // process your price.
    }

}

Or, you can retrieve the Reactive Messaging type Message<Double>:

@Incoming("prices")
public CompletionStage<Void> consume(Message<Double> msg) {
    // access record metadata
    var metadata = msg.getMetadata(PulsarIncomingMessageMetadata.class).orElseThrow();
    // process the message payload.
    double price = msg.getPayload();
    // Acknowledge the incoming message (acknowledge the Pulsar message back to the broker)
    return msg.ack();
}

The Reactive Messaging Message type lets the consuming method access the incoming message metadata and handle the acknowledgment manually.

If you want to access the Pulsar message objects directly, use:

@Incoming("prices")
public void consume(org.apache.pulsar.client.api.Message<Double> msg) {
    String key = msg.getKey();
    String value = msg.getValue();
    String topic = msg.topicName();
    // ...
}

org.apache.pulsar.client.api.Message is provided by the underlying Pulsar client and can be used directly with the consumer method.

Alternatively, your application can inject a Multi in your bean, identified with the channel name and subscribe to its events as the following example:

import io.smallrye.mutiny.Multi;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Channel;

import jakarta.inject.Inject;
import jakarta.ws.rs.GET;
import jakarta.ws.rs.Path;
import jakarta.ws.rs.Produces;
import jakarta.ws.rs.core.MediaType;
import org.jboss.resteasy.reactive.RestStreamElementType;

@Path("/prices")
public class PriceResource {

    @Inject
    @Channel("prices")
    Multi<Double> prices;

    @GET
    @Path("/prices")
    @RestStreamElementType(MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN)
    public Multi<Double> stream() {
        return prices;
    }
}

When consuming messages with @Channel, the application code is responsible for the subscription. In the example above, the Quarkus REST (formerly RESTEasy Reactive) endpoint handles that for you.

以下类型可以作为 channels 被注入:

@Inject @Channel("prices") Multi<Double> streamOfPayloads;

@Inject @Channel("prices") Multi<Message<Double>> streamOfMessages;

@Inject @Channel("prices") Publisher<Double> publisherOfPayloads;

@Inject @Channel("prices") Publisher<Message<Double>> publisherOfMessages;

As with the previous Message example, if your injected channel receives payloads (Multi<T>), it acknowledges the message automatically, and support multiple subscribers. If your injected channel receives Message (Multi<Message<T>>), you will be responsible for the acknowledgment and broadcasting.

4.2. 阻塞处理

Reactive Messaging会在一个I/O线程中调用您的方法。关于这个话题的更多细节,请看 Quarkus Reactive Architecture documentation 。但是您可能需要经常将Reactive Messaging 与阻塞式处理相结合使用,比如与数据库通信。为此,您需要使用 @Blocking 注解来表该明处理是 阻塞的 ,并且不在调用者线程中运行。

例如,下面的代码说明了如何使用带有Panache的Hibernate来将传入的有效载荷存储到数据库:

import io.smallrye.reactive.messaging.annotations.Blocking;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Incoming;

import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;
import jakarta.transaction.Transactional;

@ApplicationScoped
public class PriceStorage {

    @Incoming("prices")
    @Transactional
    public void store(int priceInUsd) {
        Price price = new Price();
        price.value = priceInUsd;
        price.persist();
    }

}

有2个 @Blocking 注释:

  1. io.smallrye.reactive.messaging.annotations.Blocking

  2. io.smallrye.common.annotation.Blocking

它们效果相同。因此,您可以随意使用。第一个提供了更精细的配置,比如worker pool以及是否保留顺序。第二种,同其他的Quarkus Reactive功能类似,使用默认的worker pool并且保留了顺序。

Detailed information on the usage of @Blocking annotation can be found in SmallRye Reactive Messaging – Handling blocking execution.

@RunOnVirtualThread

For running the blocking processing on Java virtual threads, see the Quarkus Virtual Thread support with Reactive Messaging documentation.

@Transactional

如果你的方法被注释为 @Transactional ,它将被自动视为 blocking ,即使该方法没有被注释为 @Blocking

4.3. Pulsar Subscription Types

Pulsar subscriptionType consumer configuration can be used flexibly to achieve different messaging scenarios, such as publish-subscribe or queuing.

  • Exclusive subscription type allows specifying a unique subscription name for "fan-out pub-sub messaging". This is the default subscription type.

  • Shared, Key_Shared or Failover subscription types allow multiple consumers to share the same subscription name, to achieve "message queuing" among consumers.

If a subscription name is not provided Quarkus generates a unique id.

4.4. Deserialization and Pulsar Schema

The Pulsar Connector allows configuring Schema configuration for the underlying Pulsar consumer. See the Pulsar Schema Configuration & Auto Schema Discovery for more information.

4.5. Acknowledgement Strategies

When a message produced from a Pulsar Message is acknowledged, the connector sends an acknowledgement request to the Pulsar broker. All Reactive Messaging messages need to be acknowledged, which is handled automatically in most cases. Acknowledgement requests can be sent to the Pulsar broker using the following two strategies:

  • Individual acknowledgement is the default strategy, an acknowledgement request is to the broker for each message.

  • Cumulative acknowledgement, configured using ack-strategy=cumulative, the consumer only acknowledges the last message it received. All messages in the stream up to (and including) the provided message are not redelivered to that consumer.

By default, the Pulsar consumer does not wait for the acknowledgement confirmation from the broker to validate an acknowledgement. You can enable this using ackReceiptEnabled=true.

4.6. Failure Handling Strategies

If a message produced from a Pulsar message is nacked, a failure strategy is applied. The Quarkus Pulsar extension supports 4 strategies:

  • nack (default) sends negative acknowledgment to the broker, triggering the broker to redeliver this message to the consumer. The negative acknowledgment can be further configured using negativeAckRedeliveryDelayMicros and negativeAck.redeliveryBackoff properties.

  • fail fail the application, no more messages will be processed.

  • ignore the failure is logged, but the acknowledgement strategy will be applied and the processing will continue.

  • continue the failure is logged, but processing continues without applying acknowledgement or negative acknowledgement. This strategy can be used with Acknowledgement timeout configuration.

  • reconsume-later sends the message to the retry letter topic using the reconsumeLater API to be reconsumed with a delay. The delay can be configured using the reconsumeLater.delay property and defaults to 3 seconds. Custom delay or properties per message can be configured by adding an instance of io.smallrye.reactive.messaging.pulsar.PulsarReconsumeLaterMetadata to the failure metadata.

4.6.1. Acknowledgement timeout

Similar to the negative acknowledgement, with the acknowledgement timeout mechanism, the Pulsar client tracks the unacknowledged messages, for the given ackTimeout period and sends redeliver unacknowledged messages request to the broker, thus the broker resends the unacknowledged messages to the consumer.

To configure the timeout and redelivery backoff mechanism you can set ackTimeoutMillis and ackTimeout.redeliveryBackoff properties. The ackTimeout.redeliveryBackoff value accepts comma separated values of min delay in milliseconds, max delay in milliseconds and multiplier respectively:

mp.messaging.incoming.out.failure-strategy=continue
mp.messaging.incoming.out.ackTimeoutMillis=10000
mp.messaging.incoming.out.ackTimeout.redeliveryBackoff=1000,60000,2

4.6.2. Reconsume later and retry letter topic

The retry letter topic pushes messages that are not consumed successfully to a dead letter topic and continue message consumption. Note that dead letter topic can be used in different message redelivery methods, such as acknowledgment timeout, negative acknowledgment or retry letter topic.

mp.messaging.incoming.data.failure-strategy=reconsume-later
mp.messaging.incoming.data.reconsumeLater.delay=5000
mp.messaging.incoming.data.enableRetry=true
mp.messaging.incoming.data.negativeAck.redeliveryBackoff=1000,60000,2

4.6.3. Dead-letter topic

The dead letter topic pushes messages that are not consumed successfully to a dead letter topic an continue message consumption. Note that dead letter topic can be used in different message redelivery methods, such as acknowledgment timeout, negative acknowledgment or retry letter topic.

mp.messaging.incoming.data.failure-strategy=nack
mp.messaging.incoming.data.deadLetterPolicy.maxRedeliverCount=2
mp.messaging.incoming.data.deadLetterPolicy.deadLetterTopic=my-dead-letter-topic
mp.messaging.incoming.data.deadLetterPolicy.initialSubscriptionName=my-dlq-subscription
mp.messaging.incoming.data.subscriptionType=Shared

Negative acknowledgment or acknowledgment timeout methods for redelivery will redeliver the whole batch of messages containing at least an unprocessed message. See Producer Batching for more information.

4.7. Receiving Pulsar Messages in Batches

By default, incoming methods receive each Pulsar message individually. You can enable batch mode using batchReceive=true property, or setting a batchReceivePolicy in consumer configuration.

@Incoming("prices")
public CompletionStage<Void> consumeMessage(PulsarIncomingBatchMessage<Double> messages) {
    for (PulsarMessage<Double> msg : messages) {
        msg.getMetadata(PulsarIncomingMessageMetadata.class).ifPresent(metadata -> {
            String key = metadata.getKey();
            String topic = metadata.getTopicName();
            long timestamp = metadata.getEventTime();
            //... process messages
        });
    }
    // ack will commit the latest offsets (per partition) of the batch.
    return messages.ack();
}

@Incoming("prices")
public void consumeRecords(Messages<Double> messages) {
    for (Message<Double> msg : messages) {
        //... process messages
    }
}

Or you can directly receive the list of payloads to the consume method:

@Incoming("prices")
public void consume(List<Double> prices) {
    for (double price : prices) {
        // process price
    }
}

Quarkus auto-detects batch types for incoming channels and sets batch configuration automatically. You can configure batch mode explicitly with mp.messaging.incoming.$channel.batchReceive property.

5. Sending messages to Pulsar

The Pulsar Connector can write Reactive Messaging Messages as Pulsar Message.

5.1. 例子

Let’s imagine you have a Pulsar broker running, and accessible using the pulsar:6650 address. Configure your application to write the messages from the prices channel into a Pulsar Messages as follows:

mp.messaging.outgoing.prices.serviceUrl=pulsar://pulsar:6650 (1)
  1. Configure the Pulsar broker service url.

You don’t need to set the Pulsar topic, nor the producer name. By default, the connector uses the channel name (prices). You can configure the topic and producerName attributes to override them.

Then, your application must send Message<Double> to the prices channel. It can use double payloads as in the following snippet:

import io.smallrye.mutiny.Multi;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Outgoing;

import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;
import java.time.Duration;
import java.util.Random;

@ApplicationScoped
public class PulsarPriceProducer {

    private final Random random = new Random();

    @Outgoing("prices-out")
    public Multi<Double> generate() {
        // Build an infinite stream of random prices
        // It emits a price every second
        return Multi.createFrom().ticks().every(Duration.ofSeconds(1))
            .map(x -> random.nextDouble());
    }

}

Note that the generate method returns a Multi<Double>, which implements the Flow.Publisher interface. This publisher will be used by the framework to generate messages and send them to the configured Pulsar topic.

Instead of returning a payload, you can return a io.smallrye.reactive.messaging.pulsar.OutgoingMessage to send Pulsar messages:

@Outgoing("out")
public Multi<OutgoingMessage<Double>> generate() {
    return Multi.createFrom().ticks().every(Duration.ofSeconds(1))
        .map(x -> OutgoingMessage.of("my-key", random.nextDouble()));
}

Payload可以被封装在 org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Message,以便对写入的记录有更多的控制:

@Outgoing("generated-price")
public Multi<Message<Double>> generate() {
    return Multi.createFrom().ticks().every(Duration.ofSeconds(1))
            .map(x -> Message.of(random.nextDouble())
                    .addMetadata(PulsarOutgoingMessageMetadata.builder()
                            .withKey("my-key")
                            .withProperties(Map.of("property-key", "value"))
                            .build()));
}

When sending Messages, you can add an instance of io.smallrye.reactive.messaging.pulsar.PulsarOutgoingMessageMetadata to influence how the message is going to be written to Pulsar.

Other than method signatures returning a Flow.Publisher, outgoing method can also return single message. In this case the producer will use this method as generator to create an infinite stream.

@Outgoing("prices-out") T generate(); // T excluding void

@Outgoing("prices-out") Message<T> generate();

@Outgoing("prices-out") Uni<T> generate();

@Outgoing("prices-out") Uni<Message<T>> generate();

@Outgoing("prices-out") CompletionStage<T> generate();

@Outgoing("prices-out") CompletionStage<Message<T>> generate();

5.2. Serialization and Pulsar Schema

The Pulsar Connector allows configuring Schema configuration for the underlying Pulsar producer. See the Pulsar Schema Configuration & Auto Schema Discovery for more information.

5.3. Sending key/value pairs

In order to send Kev/Value pairs to Pulsar, you can configure the Pulsar producer Schema with a KeyValue schema.

package pulsar.outbound;

import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;
import jakarta.enterprise.inject.Produces;

import org.apache.pulsar.client.api.Schema;
import org.apache.pulsar.common.schema.KeyValue;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Incoming;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Outgoing;

import io.smallrye.common.annotation.Identifier;

@ApplicationScoped
public class PulsarKeyValueExample {

    @Identifier("out")
    @Produces
    Schema<KeyValue<String, Long>> schema = Schema.KeyValue(Schema.STRING, Schema.INT64);

    @Incoming("in")
    @Outgoing("out")
    public KeyValue<String, Long> process(long in) {
        return new KeyValue<>("my-key", in);
    }

}

If you need more control on the written records, use PulsarOutgoingMessageMetadata.

5.4. 消息确认

Upon receiving a message from a Producer, a Pulsar broker assigns a MessageId to the message and sends it back to the producer, confirming that the message is published.

By default, the connector does wait for Pulsar to acknowledge the record to continue the processing (acknowledging the received Message). You can disable this by setting the waitForWriteCompletion attribute to false.

If a record cannot be written, the message is nacked.

The Pulsar client automatically retries sending messages in case of failure, until the send timeout is reached. The send timeout is configurable with sendTimeoutMs attribute and by default is 30 seconds.

5.5. Back-pressure and inflight records

The Pulsar outbound connector handles back-pressure, monitoring the number of pending messages waiting to be written to the Pulsar broker. The number of pending messages is configured using the maxPendingMessages attribute and defaults to 1000.

The connector only sends that amount of messages concurrently. No other messages will be sent until at least one pending message gets acknowledged by the broker. Then, the connector writes a new message to Pulsar when one of the broker’s pending messages get acknowledged.

You can also remove the limit of pending messages by setting maxPendingMessages to 0. Note that Pulsar also enables to configure the number of pending messages per partition using maxPendingMessagesAcrossPartitions.

5.6. Producer Batching

By default, the Pulsar producer batches individual messages together to be published to the broker. You can configure batching parameters using batchingMaxPublishDelayMicros, batchingPartitionSwitchFrequencyByPublishDelay, batchingMaxMessages, batchingMaxBytes configuration properties, or disable it completely with batchingEnabled=false.

When using Key_Shared consumer subscriptions, the batcherBuilder can be configured to BatcherBuilder.KEY_BASED.

6. Pulsar Transactions and Exactly-Once Processing

Pulsar transactions enable event streaming applications to consume, process, and produce messages in one atomic operation.

Transactions allow one or multiple producers to send batch of messages to multiple topics where all messages in the batch are eventually visible to any consumer, or none is ever visible to consumers.

In order to be used, transaction support needs to be activated on the broker configuration, using transactionCoordinatorEnabled=true and systemTopicEnabled=true broker configuration.

On the client side, the transaction support also needs to be enabled on PulsarClient configuration:

mp.messaging.outgoing.tx-producer.enableTransaction=true

Pulsar connector provides PulsarTransactions custom emitter for writing records inside a transaction.

It can be used as a regular emitter @Channel:

package pulsar.outbound;

import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;
import jakarta.inject.Inject;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Channel;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Incoming;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Message;

import io.smallrye.mutiny.Uni;
import io.smallrye.reactive.messaging.pulsar.OutgoingMessage;
import io.smallrye.reactive.messaging.pulsar.transactions.PulsarTransactions;

@ApplicationScoped
public class PulsarTransactionalProducer {

    @Inject
    @Channel("tx-out-example")
    PulsarTransactions<OutgoingMessage<Integer>> txProducer;

    @Inject
    @Channel("other-producer")
    PulsarTransactions<String> producer;

    @Incoming("in")
    public Uni<Void> emitInTransaction(Message<Integer> in) {
        return txProducer.withTransaction(emitter -> {
            emitter.send(OutgoingMessage.of("a", 1));
            emitter.send(OutgoingMessage.of("b", 2));
            emitter.send(OutgoingMessage.of("c", 3));
            producer.send(emitter, "4");
            producer.send(emitter, "5");
            producer.send(emitter, "6");
            return Uni.createFrom().completionStage(in::ack);
        });
    }

}

The function given to the withTransaction method receives a TransactionalEmitter for producing records, and returns a Uni that provides the result of the transaction. If the processing completes successfully, the producer is flushed and the transaction is committed. If the processing throws an exception, returns a failing Uni, or marks the TransactionalEmitter for abort, the transaction is aborted.

Multiple transactional producers can participate in a single transaction. This ensures all messages are sent using the started transaction and before the transaction is committed, all participating producers are flushed.

If this method is called on a Vert.x context, the processing function is also called on that context. Otherwise, it is called on the sending thread of the producer.

6.1. (Exactly-Once Processing)精确一次处理

Pulsar Transactions API also allows managing consumer offsets inside a transaction, together with produced messages. This in turn enables coupling a consumer with a transactional producer in a consume-transform-produce pattern, also known as exactly-once processing. It means that an application consumes messages, processes them, publishes the results to a topic, and commits offsets of the consumed messages in a transaction.

The PulsarTransactions emitter also provides a way to apply exactly-once processing to an incoming Pulsar message inside a transaction.

The following example includes a batch of Pulsar messages inside a transaction.

mp.messaging.outgoing.tx-out-example.enableTransaction=true
# ...
mp.messaging.incoming.in-channel.enableTransaction=true
mp.messaging.incoming.in-channel.batchReceive=true
package pulsar.outbound;

import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;
import jakarta.inject.Inject;

import org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Channel;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.reactive.messaging.Incoming;

import io.smallrye.mutiny.Uni;
import io.smallrye.reactive.messaging.pulsar.PulsarIncomingBatchMessage;
import io.smallrye.reactive.messaging.pulsar.PulsarMessage;
import io.smallrye.reactive.messaging.pulsar.transactions.PulsarTransactions;

@ApplicationScoped
public class PulsarExactlyOnceProcessor {

    @Inject
    @Channel("tx-out-example")
    PulsarTransactions<Integer> txProducer;

    @Incoming("in-channel")
    public Uni<Void> emitInTransaction(PulsarIncomingBatchMessage<Integer> batch) {
        return txProducer.withTransactionAndAck(batch, emitter -> {
            for (PulsarMessage<Integer> record : batch) {
                emitter.send(PulsarMessage.of(record.getPayload() + 1, record.getKey()));
            }
            return Uni.createFrom().voidItem();
        });
    }

}

If the processing completes successfully, the message is acknowledged inside the transaction and the transaction is committed.

When using exactly-once processing, messages can only be acked individually rather than cumulatively.

If the processing needs to abort, the message is nack’ed. One of the failure strategies can be employed in order to retry the processing or simply fail-stop. Note that the Uni returned from the withTransaction will yield a failure if the transaction fails and is aborted.

The application can choose to handle the error case, but for the message consumption to continue, Uni returned from the @Incoming method must not result in failure. PulsarTransactions#withTransactionAndAck method will ack and nack the message but will not stop the reactive stream. Ignoring the failure simply resets the consumer to the last committed offsets and resumes the processing from there.

In order to avoid duplicates in case of failure, it is recommended to enable message deduplication and batch index level acknowledgment on the broker side:

quarkus.pulsar.devservices.broker-config.brokerDeduplicationEnabled=true
quarkus.pulsar.devservices.broker-config.brokerDeduplicationEntriesInterval=1000
quarkus.pulsar.devservices.broker-config.brokerDeduplicationSnapshotIntervalSeconds=3000
quarkus.pulsar.devservices.broker-config.acknowledgmentAtBatchIndexLevelEnabled=3000

mp.messaging.incoming.data.batchIndexAckEnabled=true

7. Pulsar Schema Configuration & Auto Schema Discovery

Pulsar messages are stored with payloads as unstructured byte array. A Pulsar schema defines how to serialize structured data to the raw message bytes. The schema is applied in producers and consumers to write and read with an enforced data structure. It serializes data into raw bytes before they are published to a topic and deserializes the raw bytes before they are delivered to consumers.

Pulsar uses a schema registry as a central repository to store the registered schema information, which enables producers/consumers to coordinate the schema of a topic’s messages through brokers. By default the Apache BookKeeper is used to store schemas.

Pulsar API provides built-in schema information for a number of primitive types and complex types such as Key/Value, Avro and Protobuf.

The Pulsar Connector allows specifying the schema as a primitive type using the schema property:

mp.messaging.incoming.prices.connector=smallrye-pulsar
mp.messaging.incoming.prices.schema=INT32

mp.messaging.outgoing.prices-out.connector=smallrye-pulsar
mp.messaging.outgoing.prices-out.schema=DOUBLE

If the value for the schema property matches a Schema Type a simple schema will be created with that type and will be used for that channel.

The Pulsar Connector allows configuring complex schema types by providing Schema beans through CDI, identified with the @Identifier qualifier.

For example the following bean provides an JSON schema and a Key/Value schema:

package pulsar.configuration;

import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;
import jakarta.enterprise.inject.Produces;

import org.apache.pulsar.client.api.Schema;
import org.apache.pulsar.common.schema.KeyValue;
import org.apache.pulsar.common.schema.KeyValueEncodingType;

import io.smallrye.common.annotation.Identifier;

@ApplicationScoped
public class PulsarSchemaProvider {

    @Produces
    @Identifier("user-schema")
    Schema<User> userSchema = Schema.JSON(User.class);

    @Produces
    @Identifier("a-channel")
    Schema<KeyValue<Integer, User>> keyValueSchema() {
        return Schema.KeyValue(Schema.INT32, Schema.JSON(User.class), KeyValueEncodingType.SEPARATED);
    }

    public static class User {
        String name;
        int age;

    }
}

To configure the incoming channel users with defined schema, you need to set the schema property to the identifier of the schema user-schema:

mp.messaging.incoming.users.connector=smallrye-pulsar
mp.messaging.incoming.users.schema=user-schema

If no schema property is found, the connector looks for Schema beans identified with the channel name. For example, the outgoing channel a-channel will use the key/value schema.

mp.messaging.outgoing.a-channel.connector=smallrye-pulsar

If no schema information is provided incoming channels will use Schema.AUTO_CONSUME(), whereas outgoing channels will use Schema.AUTO_PRODUCE_BYTES() schemas.

7.1. Auto Schema Discovery

When using Quarkus Messaging Pulsar (io.quarkus:quarkus-messaging-pulsar), Quarkus can often automatically detect the correct Pulsar Schema to configure. This autodetection is based on declarations of @Incoming and @Outgoing methods, as well as injected @Channels.

例如,如果您声明

@Outgoing("generated-price")
public Multi<Integer> generate() {
    ...
}

and your configuration indicates that the generated-price channel uses the smallrye-pulsar connector, then Quarkus will automatically set the schema attribute of the generated-price channel to Pulsar Schema INT32.

同样地,如果您声明

@Incoming("my-pulsar-consumer")
public void consume(org.apache.pulsar.api.client.Message<byte[]> record) {
    ...
}

and your configuration indicates that the my-pulsar-consumer channel uses the smallrye-pulsar connector, then Quarkus will automatically set the schema attribute to Pulsar BYTES Schema.

最后,如果您声明

@Inject
@Channel("price-create")
Emitter<Double> priceEmitter;

and your configuration indicates that the price-create channel uses the smallrye-pulsar connector, then Quarkus will automatically set the schema to Pulsar INT64 Schema.

The full set of types supported by the Pulsar Schema autodetection is:

  • shortjava.lang.Short

  • intjava.lang.Integer

  • longjava.lang.Long

  • floatjava.lang.Float

  • doublejava.lang.Double

  • byte[]

  • java.time.Instant

  • java.sql.Timestamp

  • java.time.LocalDate

  • java.time.LocalTime

  • java.time.LocalDateTime

  • java.nio.ByteBuffer

  • classes generated from Avro schemas, as well as Avro GenericRecord, will be configured with AVRO schema type

  • classes generated from Protobuf schemas, will be configured with PROTOBUF schema type

  • other classes will automatically be configured with JSON schema type

Note that JSON schema type enforces schema validation.

In addition to those Pulsar-provided schemas, Quarkus provides following schema implementations without enforcing validation :

  • io.vertx.core.buffer.Buffer will be configured with io.quarkus.pulsar.schema.BufferSchema schema

  • io.vertx.core.json.JsonObject will be configured with io.quarkus.pulsar.schema.JsonObjectSchema schema

  • io.vertx.core.json.JsonArray will be configured with io.quarkus.pulsar.schema.JsonArraySchema schema

  • For schema-less Json serialization, if the schema configuration is set to ObjectMapper<fully_qualified_name_of_the_bean>, a Schema will be generated using the Jackson ObjectMapper, without enforcing a Pulsar Schema validation. io.quarkus.pulsar.schema.ObjectMapperSchema can be used to explicitly configure JSON schema without validation.

If a schema is set by configuration, it won’t be replaced by the auto-detection.

In case you have any issues with serializer auto-detection, you can switch it off completely by setting quarkus.messaging.pulsar.serializer-autodetection.enabled=false. If you find you need to do this, please file a bug in the Quarkus issue tracker so we can fix whatever problem you have.

8. Dev Services for Pulsar

With Quarkus Messaging Pulsar extension (quarkus-messaging-pulsar) Dev Services for Pulsar automatically starts a Pulsar broker in dev mode and when running tests. So, you don’t have to start a broker manually. The application is configured automatically.

8.1. Enabling / Disabling Dev Services for Pulsar

Dev Services for Pulsar is automatically enabled unless:

  • quarkus.pulsar.devservices.enabled is set to false

  • the pulsar.client.serviceUrl is configured

  • all the Reactive Messaging Pulsar channels have the serviceUrl attribute set

Dev Services for Pulsar relies on Docker to start the broker. If your environment does not support Docker, you will need to start the broker manually, or connect to an already running broker. You can configure the broker address using pulsar.client..

8.2. 共享的代理

Most of the time you need to share the broker between applications. Dev Services for Pulsar implements a service discovery mechanism for your multiple Quarkus applications running in dev mode to share a single broker.

Dev Services for Pulsar starts the container with the quarkus-dev-service-pulsar label which is used to identify the container.

If you need multiple (shared) brokers, you can configure the quarkus.pulsar.devservices.service-name attribute and indicate the broker name. It looks for a container with the same value, or starts a new one if none can be found. The default service name is pulsar.

Sharing is enabled by default in dev mode, but disabled in test mode. You can disable the sharing with quarkus.pulsar.devservices.shared=false.

8.3. 设置端口

By default, Dev Services for Pulsar picks a random port and configures the application. You can set the port by configuring the quarkus.pulsar.devservices.port property.

Note that the Pulsar advertised address is automatically configured with the chosen port.

8.4. 配置镜像

Dev Services for Pulsar supports the official Apache Pulsar image.

A custom image name can be configured as such:

quarkus.pulsar.devservices.image-name=datastax/lunastreaming-all:2.10_4.7

8.5. Configuring the Pulsar broker

You can configure the Dev Services for Pulsar with custom broker configuration.

The following example enables transaction support:

quarkus.pulsar.devservices.broker-config.transaction-coordinator-enabled=true
quarkus.pulsar.devservices.broker-config.system-topic-enabled=true

9. Configuring Pulsar clients

Pulsar clients, consumers and producers are very customizable to configure how a Pulsar client application behaves.

The Pulsar connector creates a Pulsar client and, a consumer or a producer per channel, each with sensible defaults to ease their configuration. Although the creation is handled, all available configuration options remain configurable through Pulsar channels.

While idiomatic way of creating PulsarClient, PulsarConsumer or PulsarProducer are through builder APIs, in its essence those APIs build each time a configuration object, to pass onto the implementation. Those are ClientConfigurationData, ConsumerConfigurationData and ProducerConfigurationData.

Pulsar Connector allows receiving properties for those configuration objects directly. For example, the broker authentication information for PulsarClient is received using authPluginClassName and authParams properties. In order to configure the authentication for the incoming channel data :

mp.messaging.incoming.data.connector=smallrye-pulsar
mp.messaging.incoming.data.serviceUrl=pulsar://localhost:6650
mp.messaging.incoming.data.topic=topic
mp.messaging.incoming.data.subscriptionInitialPosition=Earliest
mp.messaging.incoming.data.schema=INT32
mp.messaging.incoming.data.authPluginClassName=org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.auth.AuthenticationBasic
mp.messaging.incoming.data.authParams={"userId":"superuser","password":"admin"}

Note that the Pulsar consumer property subscriptionInitialPosition is also configured with the Earliest value which represents with enum value SubscriptionInitialPosition.Earliest.

This approach covers most of the configuration cases. However, non-serializable objects such as CryptoKeyReader, ServiceUrlProvider etc. cannot be configured this way. The Pulsar Connector allows taking into account instances of Pulsar configuration data objects – ClientConfigurationData, ConsumerConfigurationData, ProducerConfigurationData:

import jakarta.enterprise.inject.Produces;
import io.smallrye.common.annotation.Identifier;
import org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.conf.ConsumerConfigurationData;

class PulsarConfig {

    @Produces
    @Identifier("my-consumer-options")
    public ConsumerConfigurationData<String> getConsumerConfig() {
        ConsumerConfigurationData<String> data = new ConsumerConfigurationData<>();
        data.setAckReceiptEnabled(true);
        data.setCryptoKeyReader(DefaultCryptoKeyReader.builder()
                //...
                .build());
        return data;
    }
}

This instance is retrieved and used to configure the client used by the connector. You need to indicate the name of the client using the client-configuration, consumer-configuration or producer-configuration attributes:

mp.messaging.incoming.prices.consumer-configuration=my-consumer-options

If no [client|consumer|producer]-configuration is configured, the connector will look for instances identified with the channel name:

import jakarta.enterprise.inject.Produces;
import io.smallrye.common.annotation.Identifier;
import org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.AutoClusterFailover;
import org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.conf.ClientConfigurationData;

class PulsarConfig {

    @Produces
    @Identifier("prices")
    public ClientConfigurationData getClientConfig() {
        ClientConfigurationData data = new ClientConfigurationData();
        data.setEnableTransaction(true);
        data.setServiceUrlProvider(AutoClusterFailover.builder()
                // ...
                .build());
        return data;
    }
}

You also can provide a Map<String, Object> containing configuration values by key:

import jakarta.enterprise.inject.Produces;
import io.smallrye.common.annotation.Identifier;
import org.apache.pulsar.client.api.BatcherBuilder;
import org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.conf.ClientConfigurationData;
import org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.customroute.PartialRoundRobinMessageRouterImpl;
import java.util.Map;

class PulsarConfig {

    @Produces
    @Identifier("prices")
    public Map<String, Object> getProducerConfig() {
        return Map.of(
                "batcherBuilder", BatcherBuilder.KEY_BASED,
                "sendTimeoutMs", 3000,
                "customMessageRouter", new PartialRoundRobinMessageRouterImpl(4));
    }
}

Different configuration sources are loaded in the following order of precedence, from the least important to the highest:

  1. Map<String, Object> config map produced with default config identifier, default-pulsar-client, default-pulsar-consumer, default-pulsar-producer.

  2. Map<String, Object> config map produced with identifier in the configuration or channel name

  3. [Client|Producer|Consuemr]ConfigurationData object produced with identifier in the channel configuration or the channel name

  4. Channel configuration properties named with [Client|Producer|Consuemr]ConfigurationData field names.

See 配置参考 for the exhaustive list of configuration options.

9.1. Configuring Pulsar Authentication

Pulsar provides a pluggable authentication framework, and Pulsar brokers/proxies use this mechanism to authenticate clients.

Clients can be configured in application.properties file using authPluginClassName and authParams attributes:

pulsar.client.serviceUrl=pulsar://pulsar:6650
pulsar.client.authPluginClassName=org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.auth.AuthenticationBasic
pulsar.client.authParams={"userId":"superuser","password":"admin"}

Or programmatically:

import java.util.Map;

import jakarta.enterprise.inject.Produces;
import io.smallrye.common.annotation.Identifier;
import org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.conf.ClientConfigurationData;
import org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.auth.AuthenticationBasic;

class PulsarConfig {

    @Produces
    @Identifier("prices")
    public ClientConfigurationData config() {
        var data = new ClientConfigurationData();
        var auth = new AuthenticationBasic();
        auth.configure(Map.of("userId", "superuser", "password", "admin"));
        data.setAuthentication(auth);
        return data;
    }
}

9.1.1. Configuring access to Datastax Luna Streaming

Luna Streaming is a production-ready distribution of Apache Pulsar, with tools and support from DataStax. After creating your DataStax Luna Pulsar tenant, note the auto generated token, and configure the token authentication:

pulsar.client.serviceUrl=pulsar+ssl://pulsar-aws-eucentral1.streaming.datastax.com:6651
pulsar.client.authPluginClassName=org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.auth.AuthenticationToken
pulsar.client.authParams=token:eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpYXQiOjE2ODY4MTc4MzQsImlzcyI6ImRhdGFzdGF4Iiwic3ViIjoiY2xpZW50OzA3NGZhOTI4LThiODktNDBhNC04MDEzLWNlNjVkN2JmZWIwZTtjSEpwWTJWejsyMDI5ODdlOGUyIiwidG9rZW5pZCI6IjIwMjk4N2U4ZTIifQ....

Make sure to create topics beforehand, or enable the Auto Topic Creation in the namespace configuration.

Note that the topic configuration needs to reference full name of topics:

mp.messaging.incoming.prices.topic=persistent://my-tenant/default/prices

9.1.2. Configuring access to StreamNative Cloud

StreamNative Cloud is a fully managed Pulsar-as-a-Service available in different deployment options, whether it is fully-hosted, on a public cloud but managed by StreamNative or self-managed on Kubernetes.

The StreamNative Pulsar clusters use Oauth2 authentication, so you need to make sure that a service account exists with required permissions to the Pulsar namespace/topic your application is using.

Next, you need to download the Key file (which serves as private key) of the service account and note the issuer URL (typically https://auth.streamnative.cloud/) and the audience (for example urn:sn:pulsar:o-rf3ol:redhat) for your cluster. The Pulsar Clients page in the Admin section in the StreamNative Cloud console helps you with this process.

To configure your application with Pulsar Oauth2 authentication:

pulsar.tenant=public
pulsar.namespace=default
pulsar.client.serviceUrl=pulsar+ssl://quarkus-71eaadbf-a6f3-4355-85d2-faf436b23d86.aws-euc1-prod-snci-pool-slug.streamnative.aws.snio.cloud:6651
pulsar.client.authPluginClassName=org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.auth.oauth2.AuthenticationOAuth2
pulsar.client.authParams={"type":"client_credentials","privateKey":"data:application/json;base64,<base64-encoded value>","issuerUrl":"https://auth.streamnative.cloud/","audience":"urn:sn:pulsar:o-rfwel:redhat"}

Note that the pulsar.client.authParams configuration contains a Json string with issuerUrl, audience and the privateKey in the data:application/json;base64,<base64-encoded-key-file> format.

Alternatively you can configure the authentication programmatically:

package org.acme.pulsar;

import java.net.MalformedURLException;
import java.net.URL;

import org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.auth.oauth2.AuthenticationFactoryOAuth2;
import org.apache.pulsar.client.impl.conf.ClientConfigurationData;
import org.eclipse.microprofile.config.inject.ConfigProperty;

import io.smallrye.common.annotation.Identifier;
import jakarta.enterprise.context.ApplicationScoped;
import jakarta.enterprise.inject.Produces;

@ApplicationScoped
public class PulsarAuth {

    @ConfigProperty(name = "pulsar.issuerUrl")
    String issuerUrl;

    @ConfigProperty(name = "pulsar.credentials")
    String credentials;

    @ConfigProperty(name = "pulsar.audience")
    String audience;

    @Produces
    @Identifier("pulsar-auth")
    public ClientConfigurationData pulsarClientConfig() throws MalformedURLException {
        var data = new ClientConfigurationData();
        data.setAuthentication(AuthenticationFactoryOAuth2.clientCredentials(new URL(issuerUrl), PulsarAuth.class.getResource(credentials), audience));
        return data;
    }
}

This assumes that the key file is included to the application classpath as a resource, then the configuration would like the following:

mp.messaging.incoming.prices.client-configuration=pulsar-auth

pulsar.tenant=public
pulsar.namespace=default
pulsar.client.serviceUrl=pulsar+ssl://quarkus-71eaadbf-a6f3-4355-85d2-faf436b23d86.aws-euc1-prod-snci-pool-slug.streamnative.aws.snio.cloud:6651
pulsar.issuerUrl=https://auth.streamnative.cloud/
pulsar.audience=urn:sn:pulsar:o-rfwel:redhat
pulsar.credentials=/o-rfwel-quarkus-app.json

Note that channels using the client configuration identified with pulsar-auth need to set the client-configuration attribute.

10. 健康检查

The Quarkus extension reports startup, readiness and liveness of each channel managed by the Pulsar connector. Health checks rely on the Pulsar client to verify that a connection is established with the broker.

Startup and Readiness probes for both inbound and outbound channels report OK when the connection with the broker is established.

The Liveness probe for both inbound and outbound channels reports OK when the connection is established with the broker AND that no failures have been caught.

Note that a message processing failures nacks the message which is then handled by the failure-strategy. It is the responsibility of the failure-strategy to report the failure and influence the outcome of the liveness checks. The fail failure strategy reports the failure and so the liveness check will report the failure.

11. 配置参考

Following are the list of configuration attributes for the Pulsar connector channels, consumers, producers and clients. See the Pulsar Client Configuration for more information on how the Pulsar clients are configured.

11.1. Incoming channel configuration (receiving from Pulsar)

以下属性通过该方式进行配置:

mp.messaging.incoming.your-channel-name.attribute=value
Table 1. Incoming Attributes of the 'smallrye-pulsar' connector
属性 (别名) 描述 类型 是否强制 默认值

ack-strategy

Specify the commit strategy to apply when a message produced from a record is acknowledged. Values can be ack, cumulative.

string

false

ack

ackTimeout.redeliveryBackoff

Comma separated values for configuring ack timeout MultiplierRedeliveryBackoff, min delay, max delay, multiplier.

string

false

batchReceive

Whether batch receive is used to consume messages

boolean

false

false

client-configuration

Identifier of a CDI bean that provides the default Pulsar client configuration for this channel. The channel configuration can still override any attribute. The bean must have a type of Map<String, Object> and must use the @io.smallrye.common.annotation.Identifier qualifier to set the identifier.

string

false

consumer-configuration

Identifier of a CDI bean that provides the default Pulsar consumer configuration for this channel. The channel configuration can still override any attribute. The bean must have a type of Map<String, Object> and must use the @io.smallrye.common.annotation.Identifier qualifier to set the identifier.

string

false

deadLetterPolicy.deadLetterTopic

Name of the dead letter topic where the failing messages will be sent

string

false

deadLetterPolicy.initialSubscriptionName

Name of the initial subscription name of the dead letter topic

string

false

deadLetterPolicy.maxRedeliverCount

Maximum number of times that a message will be redelivered before being sent to the dead letter topic

int

false

deadLetterPolicy.retryLetterTopic

Name of the retry topic where the failing messages will be sent

string

false

failure-strategy

Specify the failure strategy to apply when a message produced from a record is acknowledged negatively (nack). Values can be nack (default), fail, ignore or `reconsume-later

string

false

nack

health-enabled

Whether health reporting is enabled (default) or disabled

boolean

false

true

negativeAck.redeliveryBackoff

Comma separated values for configuring negative ack MultiplierRedeliveryBackoff, min delay, max delay, multiplier.

string

false

reconsumeLater.delay

Default delay for reconsume failure-strategy, in seconds

long

false

3

schema

The Pulsar schema type of this channel. When configured a schema is built with the given SchemaType and used for the channel. When absent, the schema is resolved searching for a CDI bean typed Schema qualified with @Identifier and the channel name. As a fallback AUTO_CONSUME or AUTO_PRODUCE are used.

string

false

serviceUrl

The service URL for the Pulsar service

string

false

pulsar://localhost:6650

topic

The consumed / populated Pulsar topic. If not set, the channel name is used

string

false

tracing-enabled

Whether tracing is enabled (default) or disabled

boolean

false

true

You can also configure properties supported by the underlying Pulsar consumer.

These properties can also be globally configured using pulsar.consumer prefix:

pulsar.consumer.subscriptionInitialPosition=Earliest
Table 2. Pulsar consumer Attributes
Attribute 描述 类型 Config file 默认值

topicNames

Topic name

Set

true

[]

topicsPattern

Topic pattern

Pattern

true

subscriptionName

Subscription name

String

true

subscriptionType

Subscription type.
Four subscription types are available:
* Exclusive
* Failover
* Shared
* Key_Shared

SubscriptionType

true

Exclusive

subscriptionProperties

Map

true

subscriptionMode

SubscriptionMode

true

Durable

messageListener

MessageListener

false

consumerEventListener

ConsumerEventListener

false

negativeAckRedeliveryBackoff

Interface for custom message is negativeAcked policy. You can specify RedeliveryBackoff for a consumer.

RedeliveryBackoff

false

ackTimeoutRedeliveryBackoff

Interface for custom message is ackTimeout policy. You can specify RedeliveryBackoff for a consumer.

RedeliveryBackoff

false

receiverQueueSize

Size of a consumer’s receiver queue.
For example, the number of messages accumulated by a consumer before an application calls Receive.
A value higher than the default value increases consumer throughput, though at the expense of more memory utilization.

int

true

1000

acknowledgementsGroupTimeMicros

Group a consumer acknowledgment for a specified time.
By default, a consumer uses 100ms grouping time to send out acknowledgments to a broker.
Setting a group time of 0 sends out acknowledgments immediately.
A longer ack group time is more efficient at the expense of a slight increase in message re-deliveries after a failure.

long

true

100000

maxAcknowledgmentGroupSize

Group a consumer acknowledgment for the number of messages.

int

true

1000

negativeAckRedeliveryDelayMicros

Delay to wait before redelivering messages that failed to be processed.
When an application uses Consumer#negativeAcknowledge(Message), failed messages are redelivered after a fixed timeout.

long

true

60000000

maxTotalReceiverQueueSizeAcrossPartitions

The max total receiver queue size across partitions.
This setting reduces the receiver queue size for individual partitions if the total receiver queue size exceeds this value.

int

true

50000

consumerName

Consumer name

String

true

ackTimeoutMillis

Timeout of unacked messages

long

true

0

tickDurationMillis

Granularity of the ack-timeout redelivery.
Using an higher tickDurationMillis reduces the memory overhead to track messages when setting ack-timeout to a bigger value (for example, 1 hour).

long

true

1000

priorityLevel

Priority level for a consumer to which a broker gives more priority while dispatching messages in Shared subscription type.
The broker follows descending priorities. For example, 0=max-priority, 1, 2,…​
In Shared subscription type, the broker first dispatches messages to the max priority level consumers if they have permits. Otherwise, the broker considers next priority level consumers.
Example 1
If a subscription has consumerA with priorityLevel 0 and consumerB with priorityLevel 1, then the broker only dispatches messages to consumerA until it runs out permits and then starts dispatching messages to consumerB.
Example 2
Consumer Priority, Level, Permits
C1, 0, 2
C2, 0, 1
C3, 0, 1
C4, 1, 2
C5, 1, 1

Order in which a broker dispatches messages to consumers is: C1, C2, C3, C1, C4, C5, C4.

int

true

0

maxPendingChunkedMessage

The maximum size of a queue holding pending chunked messages. When the threshold is reached, the consumer drops pending messages to optimize memory utilization.

int

true

10

autoAckOldestChunkedMessageOnQueueFull

Whether to automatically acknowledge pending chunked messages when the threshold of maxPendingChunkedMessage is reached. If set to false, these messages will be redelivered by their broker.

boolean

true

false

expireTimeOfIncompleteChunkedMessageMillis

The time interval to expire incomplete chunks if a consumer fails to receive all the chunks in the specified time period. The default value is 1 minute.

long

true

60000

cryptoKeyReader

CryptoKeyReader

false

messageCrypto

MessageCrypto

false

cryptoFailureAction

Consumer should take action when it receives a message that can not be decrypted.
* FAIL: this is the default option to fail messages until crypto succeeds.
* DISCARD:silently acknowledge and not deliver message to an application.
* CONSUME: deliver encrypted messages to applications. It is the application’s responsibility to decrypt the message.

The decompression of message fails.

If messages contain batch messages, a client is not be able to retrieve individual messages in batch.

Delivered encrypted message contains EncryptionContext which contains encryption and compression information in it using which application can decrypt consumed message payload.

ConsumerCryptoFailureAction

true

FAIL

properties

A name or value property of this consumer.

properties is application defined metadata attached to a consumer.

When getting a topic stats, associate this metadata with the consumer stats for easier identification.

SortedMap

true

{}

readCompacted

If enabling readCompacted, a consumer reads messages from a compacted topic rather than reading a full message backlog of a topic.

A consumer only sees the latest value for each key in the compacted topic, up until reaching the point in the topic message when compacting backlog. Beyond that point, send messages as normal.

Only enabling readCompacted on subscriptions to persistent topics, which have a single active consumer (like failure or exclusive subscriptions).

Attempting to enable it on subscriptions to non-persistent topics or on shared subscriptions leads to a subscription call throwing a PulsarClientException.

boolean

true

false

subscriptionInitialPosition

Initial position at which to set cursor when subscribing to a topic at first time.

SubscriptionInitialPosition

true

Latest

patternAutoDiscoveryPeriod

Topic auto discovery period when using a pattern for topic’s consumer.

The default and minimum value is 1 minute.

int

true

60

regexSubscriptionMode

When subscribing to a topic using a regular expression, you can pick a certain type of topics.

* PersistentOnly: only subscribe to persistent topics.
* NonPersistentOnly: only subscribe to non-persistent topics.
* AllTopics: subscribe to both persistent and non-persistent topics.

RegexSubscriptionMode

true

PersistentOnly

deadLetterPolicy

Dead letter policy for consumers.

By default, some messages are probably redelivered many times, even to the extent that it never stops.

By using the dead letter mechanism, messages have the max redelivery count. When exceeding the maximum number of redeliveries, messages are sent to the Dead Letter Topic and acknowledged automatically.

You can enable the dead letter mechanism by setting deadLetterPolicy.

When specifying the dead letter policy while not specifying ackTimeoutMillis, you can set the ack timeout to 30000 millisecond.

DeadLetterPolicy

true

retryEnable

boolean

true

false

batchReceivePolicy

BatchReceivePolicy

false

autoUpdatePartitions

If autoUpdatePartitions is enabled, a consumer subscribes to partition increasement automatically.

Note: this is only for partitioned consumers.

boolean

true

true

autoUpdatePartitionsIntervalSeconds

long

true

60

replicateSubscriptionState

If replicateSubscriptionState is enabled, a subscription state is replicated to geo-replicated clusters.

boolean

true

false

resetIncludeHead

boolean

true

false

keySharedPolicy

KeySharedPolicy

false

batchIndexAckEnabled

boolean

true

false

ackReceiptEnabled

boolean

true

false

poolMessages

boolean

true

false

payloadProcessor

MessagePayloadProcessor

false

startPaused

boolean

true

false

autoScaledReceiverQueueSizeEnabled

boolean

true

false

topicConfigurations

List

true

[]

11.2. Outgoing channel configuration (publishing to Pulsar)

Table 3. Outgoing Attributes of the 'smallrye-pulsar' connector
属性 (别名) 描述 类型 是否强制 默认值

client-configuration

Identifier of a CDI bean that provides the default Pulsar client configuration for this channel. The channel configuration can still override any attribute. The bean must have a type of Map<String, Object> and must use the @io.smallrye.common.annotation.Identifier qualifier to set the identifier.

string

false

health-enabled

Whether health reporting is enabled (default) or disabled

boolean

false

true

maxPendingMessages

The maximum size of a queue holding pending messages, i.e messages waiting to receive an acknowledgment from a broker

int

false

1000

producer-configuration

Identifier of a CDI bean that provides the default Pulsar producer configuration for this channel. The channel configuration can still override any attribute. The bean must have a type of Map<String, Object> and must use the @io.smallrye.common.annotation.Identifier qualifier to set the identifier.

string

false

schema

The Pulsar schema type of this channel. When configured a schema is built with the given SchemaType and used for the channel. When absent, the schema is resolved searching for a CDI bean typed Schema qualified with @Identifier and the channel name. As a fallback AUTO_CONSUME or AUTO_PRODUCE are used.

string

false

serviceUrl

The service URL for the Pulsar service

string

false

pulsar://localhost:6650

topic

The consumed / populated Pulsar topic. If not set, the channel name is used

string

false

tracing-enabled

Whether tracing is enabled (default) or disabled

boolean

false

true

waitForWriteCompletion

Whether the client waits for the broker to acknowledge the written record before acknowledging the message

boolean

false

true

You can also configure properties supported by the underlying Pulsar producer.

These properties can also be globally configured using pulsar.producer prefix:

pulsar.producer.batchingEnabled=false
Table 4. Pulsar producer Attributes
Attribute 描述 类型 Config file 默认值

topicName

Topic name

String

true

producerName

Producer name

String

true

sendTimeoutMs

Message send timeout in ms.
If a message is not acknowledged by a server before the sendTimeout expires, an error occurs.

long

true

30000

blockIfQueueFull

If it is set to true, when the outgoing message queue is full, the Send and SendAsync methods of producer block, rather than failing and throwing errors.
If it is set to false, when the outgoing message queue is full, the Send and SendAsync methods of producer fail and ProducerQueueIsFullError exceptions occur.

The MaxPendingMessages parameter determines the size of the outgoing message queue.

boolean

true

false

maxPendingMessages

The maximum size of a queue holding pending messages.

For example, a message waiting to receive an acknowledgment from a broker.

By default, when the queue is full, all calls to the Send and SendAsync methods fail unless you set BlockIfQueueFull to true.

int

true

0

maxPendingMessagesAcrossPartitions

The maximum number of pending messages across partitions.

Use the setting to lower the max pending messages for each partition (#setMaxPendingMessages(int)) if the total number exceeds the configured value.

int

true

0

messageRoutingMode

Message routing logic for producers on partitioned topics.
Apply the logic only when setting no key on messages.
Available options are as follows:
* pulsar.RoundRobinDistribution: round robin
* pulsar.UseSinglePartition: publish all messages to a single partition
* pulsar.CustomPartition: a custom partitioning scheme

MessageRoutingMode

true

hashingScheme

Hashing function determining the partition where you publish a particular message (partitioned topics only).
Available options are as follows:
* pulsar.JavastringHash: the equivalent of string.hashCode() in Java
* pulsar.Murmur3_32Hash: applies the Murmur3 hashing function
* pulsar.BoostHash: applies the hashing function from C++'s Boost library

HashingScheme

true

JavaStringHash

cryptoFailureAction

Producer should take action when encryption fails.
* FAIL: if encryption fails, unencrypted messages fail to send.
* SEND: if encryption fails, unencrypted messages are sent.

ProducerCryptoFailureAction

true

FAIL

customMessageRouter

MessageRouter

false

batchingMaxPublishDelayMicros

Batching time period of sending messages.

long

true

1000

batchingPartitionSwitchFrequencyByPublishDelay

int

true

10

batchingMaxMessages

The maximum number of messages permitted in a batch.

int

true

1000

batchingMaxBytes

int

true

131072

batchingEnabled

Enable batching of messages.

boolean

true

true

batcherBuilder

BatcherBuilder

false

chunkingEnabled

Enable chunking of messages.

boolean

true

false

chunkMaxMessageSize

int

true

-1

cryptoKeyReader

CryptoKeyReader

false

messageCrypto

MessageCrypto

false

encryptionKeys

Set

true

[]

compressionType

Message data compression type used by a producer.
Available options:
* LZ4
* ZLIB
* ZSTD
* SNAPPY

CompressionType

true

NONE

initialSequenceId

Long

true

autoUpdatePartitions

boolean

true

true

autoUpdatePartitionsIntervalSeconds

long

true

60

multiSchema

boolean

true

true

accessMode

ProducerAccessMode

true

Shared

lazyStartPartitionedProducers

boolean

true

false

properties

SortedMap

true

{}

initialSubscriptionName

Use this configuration to automatically create an initial subscription when creating a topic. If this field is not set, the initial subscription is not created.

String

true

11.3. Pulsar Client Configuration

Following is the configuration reference for the underlying PulsarClient. These options can be configured using the channel attribute:

mp.messaging.incoming.your-channel-name.numIoThreads=4

Or configured globally using pulsar.client prefix:

pulsar.client.serviceUrl=pulsar://pulsar:6650
Table 5. Pulsar client Attributes
Attribute 描述 类型 Config file 默认值

serviceUrl

Pulsar cluster HTTP URL to connect to a broker.

String

true

serviceUrlProvider

The implementation class of ServiceUrlProvider used to generate ServiceUrl.

ServiceUrlProvider

false

authentication

Authentication settings of the client.

Authentication

false

authPluginClassName

Class name of authentication plugin of the client.

String

true

authParams

Authentication parameter of the client.

String

true

authParamMap

Authentication map of the client.

Map

true

operationTimeoutMs

Client operation timeout (in milliseconds).

long

true

30000

lookupTimeoutMs

Client lookup timeout (in milliseconds).

long

true

-1

statsIntervalSeconds

Interval to print client stats (in seconds).

long

true

60

numIoThreads

Number of IO threads.

int

true

10

numListenerThreads

Number of consumer listener threads.

int

true

10

connectionsPerBroker

Number of connections established between the client and each Broker. A value of 0 means to disable connection pooling.

int

true

1

connectionMaxIdleSeconds

Release the connection if it is not used for more than [connectionMaxIdleSeconds] seconds. If [connectionMaxIdleSeconds] < 0, disabled the feature that auto release the idle connections

int

true

180

useTcpNoDelay

Whether to use TCP NoDelay option.

boolean

true

true

useTls

Whether to use TLS.

boolean

true

false

tlsKeyFilePath

Path to the TLS key file.

String

true

tlsCertificateFilePath

Path to the TLS certificate file.

String

true

tlsTrustCertsFilePath

Path to the trusted TLS certificate file.

String

true

tlsAllowInsecureConnection

Whether the client accepts untrusted TLS certificates from the broker.

boolean

true

false

tlsHostnameVerificationEnable

Whether the hostname is validated when the client creates a TLS connection with brokers.

boolean

true

false

concurrentLookupRequest

The number of concurrent lookup requests that can be sent on each broker connection. Setting a maximum prevents overloading a broker.

int

true

5000

maxLookupRequest

Maximum number of lookup requests allowed on each broker connection to prevent overloading a broker.

int

true

50000

maxLookupRedirects

Maximum times of redirected lookup requests.

int

true

20

maxNumberOfRejectedRequestPerConnection

Maximum number of rejected requests of a broker in a certain time frame (60 seconds) after the current connection is closed and the client creating a new connection to connect to a different broker.

int

true

50

keepAliveIntervalSeconds

Seconds of keeping alive interval for each client broker connection.

int

true

30

connectionTimeoutMs

Duration of waiting for a connection to a broker to be established.If the duration passes without a response from a broker, the connection attempt is dropped.

int

true

10000

requestTimeoutMs

Maximum duration for completing a request.

int

true

60000

readTimeoutMs

Maximum read time of a request.

int

true

60000

autoCertRefreshSeconds

Seconds of auto refreshing certificate.

int

true

300

initialBackoffIntervalNanos

Initial backoff interval (in nanosecond).

long

true

100000000

maxBackoffIntervalNanos

Max backoff interval (in nanosecond).

long

true

60000000000

enableBusyWait

Whether to enable BusyWait for EpollEventLoopGroup.

boolean

true

false

listenerName

Listener name for lookup. Clients can use listenerName to choose one of the listeners as the service URL to create a connection to the broker as long as the network is accessible."advertisedListeners" must enabled in broker side.

String

true

useKeyStoreTls

Set TLS using KeyStore way.

boolean

true

false

sslProvider

The TLS provider used by an internal client to authenticate with other Pulsar brokers.

String

true

tlsKeyStoreType

TLS KeyStore type configuration.

String

true

JKS

tlsKeyStorePath

Path of TLS KeyStore.

String

true

tlsKeyStorePassword

Password of TLS KeyStore.

String

true

tlsTrustStoreType

TLS TrustStore type configuration. You need to set this configuration when client authentication is required.

String

true

JKS

tlsTrustStorePath

Path of TLS TrustStore.

String

true

tlsTrustStorePassword

Password of TLS TrustStore.

String

true

tlsCiphers

Set of TLS Ciphers.

Set

true

[]

tlsProtocols

Protocols of TLS.

Set

true

[]

memoryLimitBytes

Limit of client memory usage (in byte). The 64M default can guarantee a high producer throughput.

long

true

67108864

proxyServiceUrl

URL of proxy service. proxyServiceUrl and proxyProtocol must be mutually inclusive.

String

true

proxyProtocol

Protocol of proxy service. proxyServiceUrl and proxyProtocol must be mutually inclusive.

ProxyProtocol

true

enableTransaction

Whether to enable transaction.

boolean

true

false

clock

Clock

false

dnsLookupBindAddress

The Pulsar client dns lookup bind address, default behavior is bind on 0.0.0.0

String

true

dnsLookupBindPort

The Pulsar client dns lookup bind port, takes effect when dnsLookupBindAddress is configured, default value is 0.

int

true

0

socks5ProxyAddress

Address of SOCKS5 proxy.

InetSocketAddress

true

socks5ProxyUsername

User name of SOCKS5 proxy.

String

true

socks5ProxyPassword

Password of SOCKS5 proxy.

String

true

description

The extra description of the client version. The length cannot exceed 64.

String

true

Configuration properties not configurable in configuration files (non-serializable) is noted in the column Config file.

12. 进一步探索

This guide has shown how you can interact with Pulsar using Quarkus. It utilizes Quarkus Messaging to build data streaming applications.

如果您想更进一步,请参看SmallRye Reactive Messaging,在Quarkus中使用的实现。

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